Subject: Date: Wed, 18 Jun 1997 07:24:31 -0700 From: David Matthew Levinson <dmlevins> To: 1996 Western Invitational Questions by Peter Freeman, Arizona State Toss-Ups 1. First isolated by Rouelle in 1773, in 1828 its preparation from ammonium cyanate was the first generally accepted laboratory synthesis of a naturally occurring organic compound from non-organic materials. With formula H2NCONH2, it is formed with proteins are broken down, with removed amino groups converted first to ammonia and then to it in the liver; it is then expelled from the body. FTP, name this fertilizing substance. answer: UREA 2. The name's the same: the surname of the lover of Catherine the Great who was part of the conspiracy to murder her husband Peter III and who became Prince of Tauris in 1783; and a ship anchored off Odessa upon which sailors rebelled in 1905, commemorated in a 1925 Sergei Eisenstein film. FTP, give the common name of the person and battleship. answer: POTEMKIN 3. Built primarily between 1238 and 1358 A.D. by Ibn al-Ahmar and his successors, its name is probably derived from the color of the sun-dried bricks of which the outer walls are built. FTP, name this building which translates from the Arabic as "The Red", a subject of a Washington Irving work and the palace of the Moorish monarchs of Granada. answer: the ALHAMBRA 4. It owns the Kamaran group and the island of Socotra in the Arabian Sea, and has fought battles over the Hanish Islands in the Red Sea. Known in ancient times as Arabia Felix, it continues to negotiate the placement of its borders in the Rub al-Khali. FTP, name this Arabian peninsula country with capital San'a'. answer: YEMEN 5. A sharecropper, his wife, and some of his 15 children are the main char- acters in this work. Although it's been six years since he could grow cotton, Jeeter Lester refuses to work in town, and has to deal with the unconsummated marriage of his 12 year old daughter Pearl to Lov Benson, and Lov's attentions towards Jeeter's hare-lipped daughter Ellie May. FTP, name this work, which along with "God's Little Acre" is the most famous of Erskine Caldwell. answer: TOBACCO ROAD 6. Located in the German state of Thuringia, it was the center of a movement in classicism including the likes of Goethe and Schiller. Located near the Buchenwald concentration camp, it was the first home of the Bauhaus movement. FTP, name this German city in which a reconstituted National Assembly first met in 1919. answer: WEIMAR 7. He first conjectured the particle that was to be discovered by Reines and Cowan in 1956. Before this, in 1924, he proposed a fourth quantum number, and matrices related to this quantity in quantum mechanics are named for him. FTP, name this Austrian winner of the 1945 Nobel Prize in Physics for his 1925 discovery of the Exclusion Principle. answer: Wolfgang PAULI 8. This delegate to the Versailles Conference who signed treaties with Austria and Bulgaria succeeded from house to garden in 1895, over 9 miles in England in 1896, 18 miles in 1898, and across the Atlantic from the southwestern tip of England to Newfoundland in 1901. FTP, name this half-Irish winner of the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics, who filed patent number 7777 for Improvements in Apparatus for Wireless Telegraphy in 1900. answer: Guglielmo MARCONI 9. Nicknamed "the lawgiver", he undertook three campaigns against Persia, captured Belgrade, broke the Hungarians at Mohacs, and unsuccessfully laid siege to Vienna. Later, he concluded with Francis I of France an alliance against the Hapsburgs. FTP, name this man who died in the siege of Szigeth in 1566 after a 46 year reign in which the Ottoman Empire reached its greatest strength. answer: SULEYMAN the _I_ or MAGNIFICIENT 10. His 1525 pamphlet, "Against the Murderous and Thieving Hordes of Peasants," he writes, "Therefore, let everyone who can, smite, slay, and stab, secretly or openly, remembering that nothing can be more poisonous, hurtful, or devilish than a rebel", pretty strong stuff from a man who concluded an April 1521 speech with "Here I stand; I cannot do otherwise; God help me; Amen." FTP, name the man who gave this speech at the Diet of Worms to defend, among other things, his 1517 posting of the 95 Theses in Wittenberg. answer: Martin LUTHER 11. He resigned his grammar school teaching job after two weeks, and joined his father's pencil-making business. He started a school with his brother John, but in 1839 realized his true calling: writing. In 1854, he published a series of 18 essays describing an experiment he undertook from July 1845 to September 1847. FTP, name this abolitionist and Transcendentalist whose experiment was interrupted by being thrown in jail for failing to pay a poll tax, leading to the work "Civil Disobedience". answer: Henry David THOREAU 12. Sickly, and of diminutive stature, he became a politician. In 1830, despite his oath to Louis-Phillipe, his family ties to Charles X made his position precarious, so he and Gustave de Beaumont escaped by getting official permission to study prison reform in America. Out of this came three books, on prisons, slavery, and a third which would make his reputation. FTP, name this political scientist who between 1835 and 1840 published sections of his "Democracy in America". answer: Alexis (Charles-Henri-Maurice Clirel) de TOCQUEVILLE 13. Located in areas with particularly strong temperature gradients, for example frontal zones and breaks in the tropopause, they comprise narrow bands located between 30,000 and 200,000 feet elevation. Discovered by airmen in World War II, there are up to three in each hemisphere: the polar, the subtropical, and the tropical. FTP, name this areas with winds ranging up to 300 miles per hour. answer: JET STREAM 14. The people of Vincennes had had it. The governor of Indiana territory went to their relief, marching a thousand man army 150 miles north of Vincennes, where on November 7, 1811 it was attacked by the Shawnee. The next day, the Shawnee village, Prophetstown, was razed. FTP, name this battle in which both sides took heavy losses, but was portrayed by the Americans as a victory, and which helped make the reputation of William Henry Harrison. answer: Battle of TIPPECANOE 15. He avoided the draft in 1943 when a military hospital was bombed and his medical records lost. After the war, he helped open the Funny Face Shop, a specialty store that took pictures and made recordings for GIs to send home. He became a friend of Rossellini as the latter made "Open City" in 1945, with his first solo directorial effort coming 7 years later: "The White Sheik". FTP, name this Italian director of "Amarcord", "8 1/2", and "La Dolce Vita". answer: Federico FELLINI 16. Encouraged in his studies by Joseph Ellicott, he began astronomical calcu- lations about 1773 and accurately predicted a solar eclipse in 1789. From 1791 to 1802, he published annually the "Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Almanac and Ephemeris". FTP, name this man, appointed to the District of Columbia commission in 1790 to help survey Washington D.C., who wrote letters to Thomas Jefferson asking for better conditions for his fellow blacks. answer: Benjamin BANNEKER 17. He traveled to Mannheim to present "The Robbers" without the permission of his patron duke, who forbade him to write more plays. He did not return to the duke in Wurttemberg, and went on to create "Maria Stuart" and the "Wallenstein" cycle. FTP, name this contemporary of Goethe who is perhaps most famous for a hymn adapted by Beethoven for his 9th symphony, "Ode to Joy". answer: (Johann Christoph) Friedrich von SCHILLER 18. 1419: three Catholic consuls and seven citizens by supporters of Jan Hus. 1483: the Catholic mayor by Hussites. 1948: Jan Masyryk, officially by himself, unofficially with some help from KGB agents. And 1618: three Catholic consuls by Bohemian Protestants, starting the Thirty Years' War. FTP, give the common name to all these events which took place in the capital of the Czech republic. answer: DEFENESTRATIONs of PRAGUE 19. His parents were both born Jewish into families with a rich rabbinical tradition, but shortly before he was born, his father was baptized into the Evangelical Established Church. Born in 1818 in Trier, he was much influenced in his youth by the Young Hegelians. FTP, name this author of "The Poverty of Philosophy", "A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy", "The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte", and the "Communist Manifesto". answer: Karl MARX 20. When isolated by Szent-Gyorgyi in 1928, it was called hexuronic acid. In 1932, it was found to be identical to the compound discovered by Holst and Frolich in 1907. This compound is essential to the synthesis of collagen, maintenence of blood vessel strength, and the synthesis of hormones in the adrenal glands. FTP, name this vitamin needed by humans and other primates to prevent scurvy. answer: Vitamin _C_ 21. To save you all from taking the most probable -5, I will tell you that the answer to this question is NOT Quetzalcoatl. Son of Coatlique, tradition holds that he was born on Coatepec Mountain. His name translates literally from Nahuatl as "hummingbird from the left", which really means "resuscitated warrior of the south." His animal disguise was an eagle, and he supposedly helped lead the migration of the Aztecs from Aztlan to Tenochtitlan. FTP, name this Aztec sun and war god. answer: HUITZILOPOCHTLI (hweet-zill-o-poacht-lee, or some such) 22. During the Ice Age, it was dominated by two lakes, Lahontan and Bonneville. As it has no outlet to the sea, drainage occured only when Lake Bonneville's water breached its rim and water flowed northward into the Snake River valley. Since the Ice Age, the water has evaporated, leaving behind saline lakes such as Pyramid Lake, Mono Lake, and the Great Salt Lake. FTP, name this geo- graphical feature of California, Nevada, and Utah. answer: GREAT BASIN 23. He has two graves and may not be in either. Supposedly poisoned at age 27, he is said to have barked like a dog on his hands and knees before dying, emblematic of demonic possession. He claims to have sold his soul to the devil, perhaps at the junction of U.S. Highways 49 and 61 near Clarkdale, Mississippi, to become the king of Delta Blues singers. FTP, name this mentor of Muddy Waters who died on August 16, 1938. answer: Robert JOHNSON 24. Work on this began around 1915 and concluded in 1960. More than 800 pages longs, its contents are fragmentary and formless despite recurring themes and ideas from Greek mythology, ancient China, the works of Adams and Jefferson, and even economics and banking. The section written during the author's confinement in a prison camp in Pisa won the 1949 Bollingen prize. FTP, name this unfinished epic poem, the most famous work of Ezra Pound. answer: CANTOS 25. Also known as the "Well-Beloved", his early reign was dominated by the Chief Minister Fleury. Married to Marie Leszczynska, he ignored her for such mistresses as Mdes. Chateauroux, Du Barry, and Pompadour. When attempts at reform failed, the quote "Apres moi, le deluge" began to circulate throughout France. FTP, name this ruler of France from 1715 to 1774. answer: LOUIS _XV_ 1996 Western Invitational Questions by Peter Freeman, Arizona State Boni All boni worth 30 points 1. Identify this man, 30-20-10. 30: He finally broke down when his only son was killed on the Balkan front during World War I, and he was denounced by nationalists as a professor of "apparently German extraction" who taught a "foreign" discipline at the Sorbonne. 20: He called the condition where norms of conduct were absent, weak, or con- fliciting "anomie"; his doctoral thesis of 1893 was entitled "The Division of Labor in Society". 10: This author of "Suicide" and "The Rules of Sociological Method" founded the French school of sociology. answer: Emile DURKHEIM 2. Answer these questions about particle physics for ten points each. A. The lifetime of these fermions is at least 10^30 years, because of the high mass of the X boson mediating transitions between quarks and leptons; no experiment as yet has detected one decaying. answer: PROTON B. Theories treating subatomic particles as extended objects, such as put for- ward by Nambu in the early 1970s, refer to the extended objects as these. answer: STRINGs (accept SUPERSTRINGs) C. At high temperatures, both the photon, and the W and Z bosons are "massless"; at low temperature, the photon is massless, but the W and Z bosons acquire an effective mass by having to swim through a molasses-like sea of these yet-to- be-discovered particles, named for a Scottish physicist. answer: HIGGS boson 3. Answer the following related questions for the stated number of points. A. 5: Opened on August 15, 1914, it ran between the cities of Christobal and Balboa. answer: PANAMA CANAL B. 10: This Secretary of State concluded treaties relating to an Isthmian canal with Pauncefote, Herran, and Banau-Varilla. answer: John Milton HAY C. 15: This man, the chief engineer of the Panama Canal, has a bridge in the northeast United States named after him. answer: George Washington GOETHALS 4. Identify this American on a 30-20-10 basis. 30: He died of TB in Germany, where he went for treatment after he had to leave the U.S. amid rumors of Satanism and drug addiction. These rumors were fed by his realistic study of slum life in his first book, published in 1893. 20: Attempting to report from Cuba in 1897, his ship sank, he was reported drowned, he scuttled his money belt of gold, and was adrift for 50 hours before rescue. The incident inpired his short story "The Open Boat". 10: This author of "Maggie, Girl of the Streets" also wrote an 1895 work with main character Henry Fleming. answer: Stephen CRANE 5. One of the hottest playwrights going right now is Terrence McNally. For ten points each, identify these McNally plays. A. Zoe Caldwell earned critical adulation playing Maria Callas in this work. answer: MASTER CLASS B. Currently being made into a film, this play concerns eight gay men who gather one summer over three holiday weekends in a Duchess County farmhouse. answer: LOVE! VALOUR! COMPASSION! C. Named for the remover of obstacles in the Hindu pantheon, this play concerns two middle-aged women from Connecticut trying to find themselves in India. answer: A PERFECT GANESH 6. Identify the famous Americans, 30-20-10. This works like a normal 30-20-10 bonus, but the answers of each part are different. 30: This Ohio businessman led the McKinley machine in Ohio; head of the Repub- lican National Committee and a Senator, his death in 1904 prevented his attempt to deny Teddy Roosevelt a second term. answer: Marcus Alonzo HANNA 20: A founder of the Free-Soil Party, he was attacked on the Senate floor by Preston Brooks after his "Crime Against Kansas" anti-slavery speech of 1856. answer: Charles SUMNER 10: This Kentuckian, Speaker of the House, and one-time "war hawk" lost Presidential elections in 1824, 1832, and 1844. answer: Henry CLAY 7. For ten points each, identify these islands or island groups of the U.K. A. The Outer ones, including Lewis, are separated from the Inner ones by the Minch. answer: HEBRIDES B. Pentland Firth separates this group from the northern tip of Scotland. answer: ORKNEY C. Lying in the Irish Sea, it has capital Douglas. answer: Isle of MAN 8. Answer the following related questions on literature for ten points each. A. A character in a 16th century work, his mother was Badebec, and his friend in the Latin Quarter of Paris was Panurge. answer: PANTAGRUEL B. This character's parents were Grandgousier and Gargamelle, and he entered the world through Gargamelle's left ear shouting "Drink! Drink! Drink!" answer: GARGANTUA C. This French humanist scholar wrote "Gargantua and Pantagruel". answer: Francois RABELAIS 9. Identify these elements of the plant kingdom for ten points each. A. Literally meaning "naked seed", taxonomists now tend to recognize four distinct divisions: Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, and Gnetophyta. answer: GYMNOSPERMs B. Also known on Liliopsida, this class of angiosperms is characterized by the single seed leaf within the embryo of the seed. answer: MONOCOTyledons C. This region of the pistil has a sticky surface which receives pollen during pollination. answer: STIGMA 10. Identify the artist, sculptor, or architect responsible for each of these famous American items, for ten points each. A. The Presidential faces on Mt. Rushmore. answer: Gutzon BORGLUM B. The painting showing the signing of "The Declaration of Independence". answer: John TRUMBULL C. The architect of the White House answer: James HOBAN 11. Identify these pivotal U.S. Supreme Court cases for fifteen points each. A. In this unanimous 1919 decision, the justices held that the Espionage Act did not violate the 1st Amendment, and Holmes wrote that "The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theatre and causing a panic." answer: SCHENCK v. _U_nited _S_tates (or vice-versa; I've seen both ways) B. This 1908 decision upheld a law setting maximum working hours for women. It is noted for the "Brandeis Brief", which used non-traditional statistically and demographically-based arguments. answer: MULLER v. OREGON 12. Identify this biblical people for ten points each. A. The dominance of younger Israel over the older kingdom of Edom reflects the relationship of these twin sons of Isaac and Rebekan. answer: ESAU and JACOB B. This supposed ancestor of the Bedouins was sent along with his mother into the desert by Sarah. answer: ISHMAEL C. This representative of the Persians, with title "scribe of the law of the God of heaven," arrived in Judah about 400 B.C. and instituted such a number of reforms that this satrap is thought of as the father of Judaism. answer: EZRA 13. Identify these terms and people associated with integrals in mathematics for the stated number of points each. A. 10: Living from 1826 to 1866, this German's integral is synonymous with the definite integral. answer: (Georg Friedrich) Bernhard RIEMANN B. 20: This Frenchman, living from 1875 to 1941, revolutionized the field of integration by generalizing the Riemann integral. answer: Henri-Lion LEBESGUE (lay-beg) 14. Answer the following related questions about Russian literature for ten points each. A. Identify the work with main characters including Karatayev, Natasha Rostova, Prince Andrei Bolkonski, and Pierre Bezukhov. answer: WAR AND PEACE B. This story by Tolstoi is about an ordinary man thrust into contemplation about death when he discovers he has cancer. answer: The DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH C. The lover of Anna Karenina, she throws herself under a train when he tires of her and leaves for war. answer: Count Aleksei VRONSKI 15. Given works, identify the philosopher, for the stated number of points. A. 5: "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding" answer: John LOCKE B. 10: "Being and Time" answer: Martin HEIDEGGER C. 15: "The Guide of the Perplexed" answer: Moses MAIMONIDES 16. Identify these ancient civilizations for fifteen points each. A. They entered Cappadocia in Asia Minor around 1800 B.C., and were conquered around 1200 B.C. Their capital was at Hattusas, or Bogazkoy. answer: HITTITEs B. Inhabiting central Asia Minor from around 1200 B.C. until the Cimmerian invasions ending around 585 B.C., it was famous in Greece as a source of slaves, as the land of King Midas, and as the location of the Gordian Knot. answer: PHRYGIA 17. Answer the following related historical questions for the stated number of points. A. 5: this war arose out of a conflict between the Duke of York and the council, specifically the Dukes of Suffolk and Somerset, and Margaret of Anjou, which controlled Henry VI. answer: War of the ROSES B. 15: this 1455 battle, in which Suffolk was killed, kicked off the War of the Roses. answer: ST. ALBANS C. 10: this 1485 battle, won by Henry Tudor over the slain Richard III, ended the War of the Roses. answer: BOSWORTH Field 18. Identify these groups from Greek mythology for ten points each. A. 49 of these 50 sisters killed their husbands, all sons of Aegyptus, on their wedding night. In punishment, they were condemned to the endless task of trying to ferry water from one vessel to another using sieves. answer: DANAIDS B. They were Alecto, Tisiphone, and Megaera. answer: The FURIES C. These are the wild female followers of Dionysus who engage in the Bacchic rites. answer: MAENADs (prompt for more specificity on "Bacchae" 19. Write down the following terms from ballet: battement, entrechat, glissade, jete, pirouette, and plie. Match the following definitions to one of these words for ten points each. A. From the Italian from "to weave" or "to braid", it is a jump from the fifth position in which the dancer crosses his straight legs at the lower calf some number of times. answer: ENTRECHAT B. From the French for "thrown", it is a ballet leap in which the weight of the dancer is transfered from one foot to the other. answer: JETE C. From the French for "bent", it is a knee-bend. answer: PLIE 20. Identify these terms from chemistry for ten points each. A. This is the process of chemical analysis in which the quantity of some constituent of a sample is determined by adding to the measured sample an exactly known quantity of another substance with which the desired constituent reacts in a definite, known proportion. answer: TITRATION B. This is a technique for separating chemical substances in which the sample is carried by a moving gas stream through a tube packed with a finely divided solid that may be coated with a film of a liquid. answer: GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY C. This is a mixture of coloured organic compounds obtained from several species of lichen that grow in The Netherlands, particularly Lecanora tartarea and Roccella tinctorum. answer: LITMUS 21. Let's play "Identify the Nazi" for ten points per answer. A. This first head of the Gestapo was the chief defendant at Nuremberg, com- mitting suicide two hours before his hanging. answer: Hermann GOERING B. He led the SS from 1929, and also led the Gestapo after it was merged with the SS in 1936. answer: Heinrich HIMMLER C. Imprisoned for 20 years because he used slave labor, this architect designed the Nuremberg Stadium and led the German economy after 1943. answer: Albert SPEER 22. Answer these questions about the moons of the solar system for ten points each. A. All or nothing, identify the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. answer: GANYMEDE, IO, CALLISTO, and EUROPA B. Asaph Hall discovered these two moons in 1877. answer: PHOBOS and DEIMOS C. Name any three of the five moons of Uranus discovered from the Earth. answer: MIRANDA, ARIEL, UMBRIEL, TITANIA, and OBERON 23. Identify the 18th century English authors of the following works for the stated number of points. A. 5: Tristram Shandy answer: Laurence STERNE B. 10: Pamela answer: Samuel RICHARDSON C. 15: The Rivals, and The School for Scandal answer: Richard SHERIDAN 24. Identify these rivers of East Asia for the stated number of points. A. 5: the northernmost of China's two major rivers, it flows from the Kokonos Range through the Ordos Desert to the Gulf of Chihli. answer: YELLOW River or HWANG-HO B. 10: formed from the confluence of the Argun and Shilka, it forms much of China's northeastern border with Russia until it breaks off to flow to the Sea of Okhotsk (O-HOTSK). answer: AMUR C. 5: it forms in the Dalai Lama range, comprises much of Thailand's border with Laos, and flows into the South China Sea near Ho Chi Minh City. answer: MEKONG D. 10: this river flows through Hanoi to the Gulf of Tonkin. answer: RED River or ROUGE River 25. For the stated number of points, given a musician, state the instrument with which they are most associated. A. 5: Niccolo Paganini answer: VIOLIN B. 10: Art Tatum answer: PIANO C. 15: E. Power Biggs answer: ORGAN