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He made his debut in the movie “Love is In the Air” in 1937. He later became president of the Screen Actors Guild from 1947 to 1952 and again in 1959 after he served in the Air Force from 1942 to 1945. Later, he would turn to politics, becoming governor of California before defeating John Anderson and, for 15 points, Jimmy Carter in 1980. Name this 40th president.

Ronald REAGAN

Around 1900, physicians in Vienna, Berlin, and Philadelphia posited their existence. They gained notoriety when Delta Airlines started using them for pilot schedules. Ranging from 23 to 28 days in length, one is physical, one emotional, and one mental. For 15 points, name these cycles, which share their name with MTV’s shows which outline the lives of music celebrities.

BIORHYTHM(s)

Before the 1930’s, it was a Japanese textile company. The owner’s son Kiichiro then began to experiment with the two-cylinder engine, and the company soon turned to car manufacturing. For 15 points, name this company who changed its name when it entered the American market by changing its fifth letter from a “d” to a “t”.

TOYOTA

Its inspirations included Gahan Wilson’s work in “Playboy” and the author’s longtime reading of “Mad” Magazine. Originally called Nature’s Way, it would eventually include jumping cows, deer using outhouses, dinosaurs in school, one-legged elephants, and talking birds, though perhaps none of them can compare to the Midvale School for the Gifted. For 15 points, name this cartoon, whose creator, Gary Larson, is now retired.

THE FAR SIDE

Name the position: Oliver Ellsworth received this post in 1796 after Congress rejected John Rutledge’s nomination. There have been fifteen in all, with the current one in his post since 1972. For 15 points, name this position, held by the namesake of the commission to investigate John F. Kennedy’s death, and currently by William Renquist.

CHIEF JUSTICE of the United States

Some people believe in God and some don’t. God may or may not exist. Those who believe in a God who does not exist are risking finite loss. Those who do not believe in a God who does exist are risking infinite loss. Thus it is better to believe in God. For 15 points, what theological argument have I just outlined?

PASCAL’S WAGER/GAMBIT/BET

These four words were made famous by a character whose real name was “Yev Kassem.” Kassem was modeled after a real-life New York merchant who once chased a reporter down the street when the reporter asked him to repeat this four-word catchphrase popularized in an episode of Seinfeld. For 15 points, buzz in and express the fact that you will not supply me with a broth-based food.

“NO SOUP FOR YOU!”

Identify the last name shared by all the following people: Irving and Amy put out the notoriously inaccurate “Book of Lists”; John was a Syracuse center drafted by the New York Knicks; and a scientist with this last name was a contemporary of Charles Darwin who came up with a theory of natural selection independently of him. For 15 points, name this 7-letter last name.

WALLACE

“A woman giving the name of Mrs. James Jones, who is reported to be one of the society leaders of the city, is said to have given what purported to be a party yesterday to a number of alleged ladies.” This journalistic gem came from the pen of this cub reporter who was told to print nothing that he couldn’t personally verify. He held many other jobs, including printer’s apprentice, Far West prospector, river pilot, and author. For 15 points, name this man who created “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calevaras County.”

Mark TWAIN (Samuel Langhorne CLEMENS)

This work of literature comes from a pact made by four friends traveling to Switzerland. Three of them were Dr. John William Polidori, George Byron, and Percy Shelley, and they all agreed to each write a ghost story. Only the fourth friend finished hers, and she published in in 1918 with a preface by her husband. For 15 points, name this story, subtitled “A Modern Prometheus,” of a doctor named Victor, the creation of Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, whose husband’s name was Shelley.

FRANKENSTEIN

David Letterman’s top ten signs that he was making progress included “Rewinds tape of Taxi Driver before returning it to video store” and “Has grown out of harmful obsession with Jodi Foster, has started one with Foster Brooks.” For 15 points, name this would-be assassin who plead insanity.

John HINCKLEY, Jr.

“May God have mercy on General Lee, for I will have none.” These were words spoken by the attacking general at this battle, who led 130,000 men against Lee’s forces in late April in 1863. The Union strategy was a three-pronged attack, with the aforementioned Joe Hooker leading 70,000 troops across the Rapahannock River, nine miles west of Fredricksburg. Lee and Stonewall Jackson, however, foiled the attempt with their famous “cracker barrel” conference. For 15 points, name this Confederate victory that saw Jackson go around Hooker’s troops before securing victory.

CHANCELLORSVILLE (accept Joe HOOKER before “this battle”)

It’s also called black cherry, deadly nightshade, dwale, and poison black cherry. Though it’s used as a remedy for inflammation, this herb can be poisonous and deadly in uncontrolled dosages. For 15 points, name this herb whose 10-letter name is also an Italian word for a beautiful woman.

BELLADONNA

He got a Jerk of the Week award in October 1999 for a good many reasons. He called his stadium “outmoded” and that it was in a bad location, and he threatened to move his team to New Jersey. He called an imported pitcher a “fat toad.” And when his team got to the World Series, he got in a fight over who would throw out the first pitch. For 15 points, name this outspoken Yankees owner.

George STEINBRENNER

When he was fifty years old, he looked at a tree and said, “I shall be like that tree; I shall die from the top.” His prediction came true, for although he lived well into his seventies, he experienced extreme mental sickness in his last years. For 15 points, name this Anglo-Irish satirist, clergyman, and author, who wrote the biting “A Modest Proposal” and is most famous for “Gulliver’s Travels.”

Jonathan SWIFT

Levi Morton, Charles Curtis, William King, William Wheeler, and Alben Barkley have all held, for 15 points, what post, also held by John Nance Garner and Hubert H. Humphrey?

VICE PRESIDENT of the United States

His lover, Joyce Maynard, recently drew fire for publishing letters he wrote to her years ago. Born in 1919, this writer is known singularly for a single novel which gave him overnight fame. For 10 points, name this writer who, when asked to consider changing the name of his most famous novel, replied, “Holden Caulfield wouldn’t like that.”

J. D. SALINGER

Their first names are Kix and Rodney. One shares his name with another, even more famous, country music star. Together they have recorded such hits as “My Maria.” For 10 points, name this perennial Best Duo winner in country music.

BROOKS AND DUNN

In December 1938, a fisherman made a very interesting discovery. He found a certain lobe-finned fish, and this particular species had been thought to have been extinct for over 70 million years. For 10 points, name this fish that continues to live in the waters near the Comoros islands.

COELACANTH

He was born in Detroit, the son of Polish parents. He later worked in a wire mill, where he learned anarchist doctrines. He is said to have had a history of mental problems, which was bad news for the United States on September 14, 1901, when his target died. For 10 points, name this assassin of President McKinley.

Leon CZOLGOSZ (“CHOL-gosh”)

In 1953, he created the “Imaginary Landscape Number 4,” a composition scored for twelve radios tuned randomly. In another of his works, a man sits at a piano silently for four minutes and thirty-three seconds. For 10 points, name this modern musician.

John CAGE

Written by a man who spoke Russian, French, and English, it is about a Swiss-French-Austrian-English pedophiliac. The title character’s real name is Delores. For 10 points, name this “light of my life, fire of my loins. My sin, my soul,” as spoken by Humbert Humbert and written by Vladimir Nabokov.

LOLITA

He returned to Rome in 62 B.C., having defeated the Mediterranean pirates and King Mithridates of Pontus, and having annexed Syria and Palestine. The Senate, though, was fearful of him, and denied his veterans land in Italy. For 10 points, name this man who, with Crassus and Julius Caesar, was a member of the First Triumverate.

POMPEY the Great, or Gnaeus POMPEIUS Magnus

Not much is known of this man, with little but the summary of Procleus to guide historians. His lifespan is unknown, though Procleus seems sure of the fact that he lived between the first students of Plato and the time of Eratosthenes and Archimedes. Posidonius wrote a whole book defending his masterpiece’s first assumption; some had rejected the parallel postulate. For 10 points, name this man whom the Greeks commonly referred to as “the writer of the Elements.”

EUCLID

His corpse was found by Seth, who promptly divided it into fourteen pieces, scattering them far and wide. Isis recovered almost all of them, and Anubis reassembled and mummified his body. For 15 points, name this god who, when revived, became the ruler of the Egyptian underworld.

OSIRIS

In 1781, it was called Georgium Sidus, “the Star of George,” after George III. Though eventually it would be be rechristened after the Greek god of the sky, it, along with its 11 rings, was called “Herschel” for a period, after its discoverer. For 10 points, name this planet, the first to be discovered in modern times.

URANUS

The poet Hesiod believed that they had manifested themselves to him on Mount Helicon, and he was the first to reveal their names, in his poem “the Theogony.” They certainly got around, going to Aganippe, Hippocrene, and Castalia after their birth in Pieria, sometimes considered on the slopes of Mount Olympus. For 15 points, name this group of nine inspirers and performers, including Terpshichore, Clio, and Calliope.

The MUSES

Originally, it referred to the ritual led by Girolamo Savonarola, in which the participants would incinerate paintings. More recently, it was used as a title for a book about a Wall Street hotshot. For 10 points, name this Tom Wolfe title.

BONFIRE OF THE VANITIES

One of the most famous discoveries in recent years was made at Super-Kamiokande in Japan. Twelve and a half million gallons of ultra-pure water were lined with stainless steel. Cosmic rays and other interference were eliminated by having the laboratory underground. These particles would produce faint flashes of light, allowing 13,000 light sensors to observe them. Since these particles oscillated, it was proven that they have mass. For 15 points, name these particles, of which scientists think that tens of thousands pass through your body every second, and which come in flavors electron, muon, and tau.

NEUTRINO

Ulysses Grant’s ally Foote attacked Island Number 10, a Mississippi River Confederate fort. Meanwhile, Major General Don Carlos Bell moved from the east to meet Grant. Grant, stationed with 42,000 men on Pittsburg Landing, made a costly mistake as he underestimated the Confederates’ strength. The Confederates attacked on the morning of April 6, 1862, and by the time two days of fighting were over, 24,000 men had been killed. For 10 points, name this battle named after a church.

SHILOH (accept Pittsburg Landing before it is mentioned in the clue)

130 feet tall, in Indonesia, in 1883. 200 feet, or so it is believed, in Crete, around 1450 B.C. 220 feet, the tallest ever recorded, in Alaska, in March 1964, after a earthquake measuring 9.2 on the Richter scale. For 15 points, what wet natural disaster do all these refer to?

TIDAL WAVE (Accept “tsunami”)

Kurt Weill wrote the music for one of this man’s most famous works, which has been celebrated far more than its name would suggest. This playwright-poet also wrote “Galileo” and “Mother Courage,” but, for 10 points, who is better known for the aforementioned “Threepenny Opera”?

Bertolt BRECHT

In 1859, Jean Henri Dunant toured Italy during the Austro-Sardinian War. So moved by the suffering he saw, he published a pamphlet which would help inspire those gathered in Geneva in October 1863. For 15 points, what organization, of which the first president of the United States branch was Clara Barton, was thus formed?

The RED CROSS

Much of his fame was gained by simply walking through the streets, attempting to strike up conversation. Though he left no writings before being condemned to death, his signature method, among other things, left his mark on the world before he was charged with not worshiping the Athenian gods and with corrupting the youth. For 15 points, name this philosopher.

SOCRATES

It claims that X is a “needless letter” in our alphabet and words beginning with X are “Grecian and will not be defined in this standard english dictionary.” Of course, this would be most nontraditional in a standard dictionary, but this 1911 tome is far from one, containing, as H. L. Mencken said, “some of the most gorgeous witticisms in the English language.” For 15 points, name this book, originally titled “The Cynic’s Word Book,” by author Ambrose Bierce.

The DEVIL’S DICTIONARY

This algebraic, irrational number, twice the cosine of pi over five, can be expressed as a continued fraction using only the digit one, and adding one to this number gives the same result as squaring it. Its applications reach into architecture, as the Parthenon is a famous representation of this number, usually used as a fraction. For 10 points, name this ratio, approximately equal to 1.618.

GOLDEN Ratio / Mean / Proportion / Etc.

He has run for President multiple times, and has played in a band with Stephen King. He recently released his foray into the world of fiction, “Big Trouble,” and his fans know him as the man who skewered American history in “A Sort Of History of the United States.” This in addition to his many other books, including commentaries on turning 40 and 50. For 15 points, name this Miami Herald humor columnist.

Dave BARRY

Fortunately, their position in the western Peloponnese was near the Alpheus and Peneus rivers. This allowed a mission given by Eurystheus to Hercules to be carried out in one day. For 15 points, name the filthy place through which Hercules diverted the aforementioned rivers.

AUGEAN STABLES

This 14-letter noun retains much of its modern usage from actions on the part of the Bohemian Protestants. In May 1618, the eve of the Thirty Years’ War, their church was destroyed, and the grew so enraged that they rioted. By the end of the riot, it had happened to two of the emperor’s offials, causing the incident to be known as the (blank) of Prague. For 15 points, what word is defined as the act of being thrown out of a window?

DEFENESTRATION (Accept Defenestration of Prague)

He was a professor at Harvard from 1937 to 1952, and had designed the glass factory buildings at Atfield in the early 1910’s. For 15 points, name this German-American functionalist who designed the Pan Am building after reorganizing the Weimar School of Art as the Bauhaus.

Walter GROPIUS

Bokonon is the inventor of Bokononism, and Dr. Felix Hoenikker has invented a substance which freezes all the liquids it contacts at all temperatures under 114.4 degrees, called ice-nine. The world is destroyed when ice-nine gets into the ocean. For 15 points, name this Kurt Vonnegut novel, which is not about a string game.

CAT’S CRADLE

A sixteen-foot statue stood atop a 24-foot cylindrical section, which stood atop a ninety-foot octagonal section, which stood atop a 183-foot cylindrical section. At night, a fire in its base was reflected by large mirrors, producing a source of light said to be visible thirty to forty miles out on the Mediterranean. For 15 points, name this ancient Wonder of the World.

The LIGHTHOUSE of ALEXANDRIA (accept Pharos)

Upon graduating from Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1908, he became a professor in physics there. As he was recovering from his tuberculosis six years later, he was awarded the first two of his 214 patents. Both patents were for versions of a particular object that would make his famous; one was powered by liquid fuel. For 15 points, name this pioneer in rocketry.

Charles GODDARD

Perhaps her most famous work pictures a large, triangular table, around which 39 famous women sit. This work, “The Dinner Party,” helped her become regarded as one of the foremost faminist painters in her time. She shares her last name with a large city. For 10 points, name the painter or the city on Lake Michigan which saw the Daly political machine, and still contains the tallest building in the United States.

Judy CHICAGO

This word dates from the Pythagoreans, who used rocks in their representations. Thus it obtained the Latin word for pebble, evidenced in this word’s medical homonym. It also has another usage more closely related to the Pythagoreans, but disputes arise when attributing its origin. Some say Archimedes invented it while attempting to find an area. More commonly, Gottfried Leibniz and Issac Newton are given credit for inventing it. For 15 points, what is this branch of mathematics, whose basic concept is the limit?

CALCULUS

He personally shaved his nobles as part of his attempt to obliterate what he saw as his nation’s backwards customs; all others, except clergy and peasantry, were also forced to shave their beards. Jointly ruling until 1689, all six feet and seven inches of his took sole control of the czarship from then until his death in 1725. For 10 points, name this Russian westernizer.

PETER the GREAT (accept PETER I)

Because the parasite responsible for malaria cannot live in the affected cells, it is actually an advantage for some in Africa, where as much as 40% of the population might have it. In America, about nine percent of African-Americans carry the codominant allele. Sufferers have impaired oxygen flow, eventually leading to fatigue, cramps, and organ failure. For 10 points, name this genetic disorder, named because it causes cells to clump together in a distinctive shape.

SICKLE-CELL ANEMIA (accept sickle-cell disease)

There were eighteen models in four series, with sich innovations as vertical grilles and push-button gears, and they were powered by a 10 million dollar ad campaign. But within a couple months of its September 1957 release, they were being offered to state highway officials at a discount just to get them on the road. For 10 points, name this Ford lemon.

Ford EDSEL

Its creator called it “seventeen minutes of orchestra without any music.” It consists of a single eight-measure theme, repeated with different orchestral color, for the entire piece. For 10 points, name this most famous piece of Maurice Ravel.

The BOLERO

It made perfect sense to Georg Ernst Stahl, who built on the work of Johann Joachim Becher. Metals were composed of two things: calx and the namesake component. Calx had positive weight, but this had negative weight, which accounted for weight changes upon burning. It was disproven in the late eighteenth century by Antoine Lavoisier, who discovered much about oxygen and combustion in the process. For 10 points, name this obsolete chemical theory.

PHLOGISTON

It can be either profundo, cantante, or buffo, the latter being clear and deep and often used in comic roles. This voice range is often used for such roles as Boris Gudonov and Mephistopheles, and not surprisingly so. For 10 points, name this lowest male voice range.

BASS

First, prove the continuum hypothesis. Seventh, obtain axioms for mathematical physics. Eighth, in part, prove the Riemann hypothesis. Fifteenth, establish algebraic geometry. Twenty-third, and finally, develop the calculus of variations. These were among a set of mathematical challenges handed down in Paris in 1900. For 10 points, who proposed them?

David HILBERT

The subject of the book “A Pirate Looks at Fifty,” he’s famous for such songs as “Come Monday.” For 10 points, name this singer who told us that he likes his burgers with lettuce, tomatoes, Heinz 57, and French fries in his song “Cheeseburger in Paradise.”

Jimmy BUFFETT

It is a one to one mixture of two n-butyl esters, and contains 1.7 to 40 parts per million of dioxin. Its most famous use was coordinated by Operation Ranch Hand, in which C-123’s could deploy 11,000 pounds of it in four minutes. Thousands of acres of farmland are still unfarmable in South Vietnam due to its use. For 15 points, name this defoliant, more potent than its blue, red, and white counterparts.

AGENT ORANGE

They include “The Gray Champion,” “The May-Pole of Marymount,” “The Gentle Boy,” “Endicott and the Red Cross,” “Howe’s Masquerade,” “Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment,” “Wakefield,” and “The Minister’s Black Veil.” For 10 points, name this collection of short stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne, which I have read to you half as much as the name would suggest.

TWICE-TOLD TALES

His targets have included syndicated television, Forrest Gump, a Billy Ray Cyrus hit, alternative music in general, the Amish, and, more recently, Annikin Skywalker. When VH1 interviewed him, he said that each one of his abums has been a comeback album. For 10 points, name this singer/songwriter, whose “Running with Scissors” contained his newest musical lampoons.

“Weird” AL YANKOVIC

History has seen it enter into many political unions. Under the terms of the 1512 “Auld Alliance,” all its citizens became French citizens, and vice versa. In 1600, “The Union of the Crowns” made its James VI James I of England. Name this country, in which a speech at Perth by John Knox started its Reformation movement.

SCOTLAND

Look at one of these with a telescope, and it looks like a normal faint star. Looking at one through a radio telescope will reveal the enormous amounts of energy they give off, though they only measure approximately 11 light-years across. For 10 points, name these “quasistellar” objects.

QUASARs

Over a million shells were fired in the artillery bombardment that began on February 21, 1916. The “Sacred Way” brought supplies to the 15-mile French front, which, headed by Henri Petain, would see 300,000 deaths, though the Germans would suffer over 250,000 themselves. For 10 points, name this World War One battle.

Battle of VERDUN

“Flash’d all their sabres bare / Flash’d as they turned in air / Sabring the gunners there / Charging the enemy while / All the world wonder’d: / Plunged into the battery-smoke, / Right thro’ the line they broke; / Cossack and Russian / Reeled from the sabre-stroke / Shatter’d and sunder’d. Then they rode back, but not / Not the six hundred.” That is a stanza from what Tennyson poem commemorating Crimean War soldiers?

The CHARGE OF THE LIGHT BRIGADE

A derivative of silicone, when scientists could not find a practical use for it, they gave up on it and it stayed unknown to the general pubilc until Peter Hodgson got a sample of it. He was fascinated by its ability to stretch like taffy and bounce like a ball when rolled up. He bought a large amount of it for $150, got a copyright on its present name, and put it in egg-shaped containers. For 15 points, name this ubiquitous toy.

SILLY PUTTY

Pretend that you have one pound of water at sixty degrees Fehrenheit and one atmosphere of pressure. You wish to raise this water’s temperature one degree, and they don’t use SI units where you are. For 15 points, you will need one unit of which unit of measure, sometimes also used on this side of the Atlantic?

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT

Strepsiades’ son has a gambling debt, so he goes to a wise man to learn how to outsmart the creditors. He decides to have his son educated instead, and the son, after one lesson, gives his father a beating and is able to prove that he was morally justified in doing so. For 15 points, name this Aristophanes play, revolving around the teachings of Socrates.

The CLOUDS

Louis was born in Kenya to British missionaries. His son Richard would marry Meave, a paleontologist. Louis eventually married Mary. The elder couple would become famous in Tanzania’s Olduvai Gorge, while the younger duo would discover humanlike fossils from four million years ago. For 15 points, what is this family of anthropoligists?

The LEAKEY family

One hit the Midwestern states in 1952, eventually creating disaster areas in 13 states. One hit New England in 1749, causing many fires. One hit the Great Plains in 1886, causing the foreclosure of many farms. One hit the plains in 1934, causing the Dust Bowl. For 15 points, what phenomenon caused Californian water rationing in 1976?

DROUGHT

Called “a complete statement of the High Renaissance,” it is a masterful marriage of geometric persepctive and artistic beauty. Completed in 1511, Herakleitos, Diogenes, Euclid, Pythagoras, Plato, and Aristotle appear in it, as well as its creator, Raphael Sanzio. For 15 points, identify this painting.

The SCHOOL OF ATHENS

Adults and the dead can be baptized. Other ceremonies are held in a secret temple. Meticulous genealogical records are kept. Sayings are kept in a tome called “The Pearl of Great Price.” Faith, however, is based in the Bible. Its founder was killed by an Illinois mob in the early 1830’s before his followers moved west. For 15 points, name these people who eventually settled in Utah.

MORMONs or CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS

Its author’s only novel, it was published under the name Victoria Lucas. A veiled autobiography, it features the character of Esther Greenwood, a woman who has a mental breakdown. Perhaps not surprisingly, one month after it was published, its author stuck her head in an oven and killed herself. For 10 points, name this Sylvia Plath book.

The BELL JAR

Born in 1917, he worked in Cambridge, building the John F. Kennedy Library. That wasn’t the only college town he’s visited, however, as the Johnson Museum of Art at Cornell University is his work. The Mile High center in Colorado is a bit higher than his best-known work, which lies half a continent and an ocean away, at perhaps the world’s most famous museum. For 15 points, the glass pyramid at the Louvre was added by which Chinese-American architect whose first two names are Ieou Ming?

Ieou Ming (I.M.) PEI

Until a certain point, the Supreme Court ruled in this case, state laws were unconstitutional, because a right to privacy makes intervention illegal. This right is not absolute, however, making later intervention legal by states, with the time in question being at the end of the first three months. For 15 points, name this 1973 decision, still central to the pro-life versus pro-choice controversy.

ROE v. WADE

In 1975, a rookie fresh out of Jackson State University rushed for zero yards on eight carries in his first game. Over the next twelve years, however, he would rush for 110 touchdowns, the third-most in history, for the Chicago Bears. For 15 points, name this man, whose 16,726 yards are still the most in history.

Walter PAYTON

Mr. Scratch is the devil. Jabez Stone, in true Faustian tradition, sells his soul to him in return for a lifetime of wealth. The devil comes to take Stone’s soul. Stone gets one of the title characters to defend him in front of a jury of American villains. Thus goes which famous New England story by Stephen Vincent Benet?

The DEVIL AND DANIEL WEBSTER

In 1947, a young Bedouin living in Qumran lost his goat. Looking for the goat, he threw a rock into a cave and heard pottery breaking. Little did he know that some of these, made out of leather and papyrus, were inside. They are thought to date from the third century B.C. to 68 A.D. Tens of thousands of pieces of them have been found now along the shores of their namesake body of water, though if you don’t understand Greek, Aramaic, or Hebrew, you won’t understand them. For 15 points, name these scrolls.

The DEAD SEA SCROLLS

August 1, 1981 changed the lives of teenagers forever. 27-year-old Robert Pittman had been put in charge of the brainchild of John Lack, the vice president of Warner-Amex-Satellite Entertainment. Inspirations included the pseudo-documentary A Hard Day’s Night and the Nickelodeon show Popclips. For 10 points, name this now-separate company, which began with only three VJ’s.

MTV (Music Television)

Identify the common last name shared by all the following people: an old prime minister of Trinidad and Tobago, the founder of the YMCA, the playwright who penned “Sweet Bird of Youth,” the American poet of “Paterson,” and for 10 points, the founder of Rhode Island.

WILLIAMS

John Woolsey, upon much thought, concluded that it was a “sincere and honest book,” and allowed it open admission into the United States. It had been listed as obscene by the U.S. Customs Court, due to its use of expletives and for, among other things, the sexual feelings that Molly Bloom reveals in her stream-of-consciousness monologues. For 10 points, name this Irish novel featuring Stephen Daedalus, written by James Joyce, that shares its title with a travelling character from mythology.

ULYSSES

It is an attempt to overcome singularity problems of general relativity, and is an attempt to create a unified field theory. It discards the notion that the basic building blocks of matter are pointlike particles, and instead theorizes that they take these shapes from which the theory gets its name. For 10 points, name this theory, which deals heavily with the vibration of these particles.

STRING theory

He lived from 1843 to 1910. He figured out that anthrax was transmitted by a virus. Though he was a physician in his native land, he made advancements in the determination of the cause of a disease, which are now known as his “postulates”. For 10 points, name this German.

Robert KOCH

According to at least one source, in 1796, Napoleon’s troops used this painting as target practice. The painting was several logical flaws; oranges weren’t introduced into that region of the world until well into the common era, and chairs were not used by Jews at the Passover meal. For 10 points, name this Da Vinci masterpiece.

The LAST SUPPER

Chapter 1 introduces Filby, the Very Young Man, the Psychologist, and the Medical Man. One of the title object’s ivory bars is cracked, and a brass rail is bent, but not surprisingly so, considering its journey. Its user was not sure that it had worked, until he glanced at the clock in his laboratory. For 10 points, name this H.G. Wells story.

The TIME MACHINE

The first king’s father, Geoffrey of Anjou, wore a piece of yellow broom in his helmet. Thus, this family’s name means “sprig of broom,” though the early kings are sometimes called Angevins. Fourteen of them would rule, including three from the house of Lancaster and three from the house of York, both of those houses being descended from them. Their reign ended, however, with the death of Richard III. For 15 points, name this royal house whose first and greatest leader was Henry II.

PLANTAGENETs

Most early-1900’s Ohio newspaper editors don’t gain much fame. He, however, was tall, handsome, and pleasing, his only major flaw being that he was, by some estimation, worse at his most important profession than anybody else ever has been at it. Defeating James Cox and Franklin Roosevelt in 1920, he gained the Presidency. For 15 points, who was this President whose administration was marred by such incidents as the Teapot Dome scandal?

Warren Gamaliel HARDING

He lights a fire on a huge whale thinking he’s on an island before his second journey takes him to the Valley of Diamonds. On his next voyage, cannibals devour his travelling buddies, but at least he wasn’t lowered into the Cavern of Death like he was on the fourth voyage. Next, he killed the Old Man of the Sea, after which he visited a coast full of precious stones, before he finally went to the China Sea on his last trip. For 15 points, name this sailor whose story can be found in Antoine Galland’s “The Arabian Nights.”

SINBAD the Sailor

Travellers from Rio de Janiero to Germany in early May, 1937, were forced to land due to a sudden safety concern. Nothing had gone wrong in their flight, but news of the fate of this had reached them. Designed by Hugo Eckener, it is said that it had only one flaw. Its four Daimler-Benz engines allowed it to reach speeds of over eighty miles an hour, and it even had a smoking room, though patrons had to use an electric lighter. Its fire safety record acquired a blemish, however, when seven million cubic feet of hydrogen gas caught fire. For 15 points, name this dirigible.

HINDENBURG (Accept Graf Zeppelin before “this”) (prompt on “Zeppelin” or “Dirigible”)

The fourth, fifth, and sixth were Dorothea, Elizabeth, and Louisa. After them came Rachel, Alla, Letitia, Julia, Sarah, Margaret, Abigail, Jane, and Mary Todd. Before them had been Martha, Abigail, and another Martha. For 15 points, what notable female position have all these women held?

FIRST LADY of the United States

"If you think of...all those small roles being played by Hollywood actors faking the accents, the picture wouldn't have had anything like the color and tone it had." At least, that’s what Pauline Kael thought of this movie, which won three Academy Awards in 1943. Much of the film is unrealistic, as there were very few Germans, actually, in the African city from which it takes its name. For 15 points, name this classic starring Humphrey Bogart.

CASABLANCA

This school of art got its name from an insulting remark made by Henri Matisse, who was commenting on a strange-looking landscape painted by Braque. For 15 points, name this school of which Pablo Picasso was a co-founder.

CUBISM

One of John Wayne’s notable flops came when he tried to play this man on film. To prepare for the role, he worked with a dialogue coach and took fencing lessons. He still couldn’t convincingly portray, however, this man, who gained his fame in the 13th century. For 15 points, name this title character of “The Conqueror.”

GHENGIS KHAN

“I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked, dragging themselves through the negro streets at dawn looking for an angry fix.” So begins this classic of beat generation literature. Name this long poem by Allen Ginsburg.

HOWL

To whom was the following letter adressed? Its recipient was observing the orbit of Venus in Tahiti at the time, and the letter read, in part: “Whereas there is reason to imagine that a Continent or Land of great extent, may be found to the Southward of the Track of any former Navigators, you are to proceed Southward in order to make the discovery of the Continent above mentioned.” This man, for 15 points, proceeded to find Australia. Name him.

Capt. James COOK

All of the following people shared what profession: Andrew Barker, William Baughe, Ferdinando Aragona, Samuel Bellamy, Eli Boggs, Edward Teach, William Kidd, and, for 15 points, Ariz Barbarossa?

PIRATE

This 4-letter word is the last name of William Jennings Bryan’s 1908 running mate whose first name was John. As a noun, it is a term for a small line used when lettering such as the line that makes an O into a Q. For 10 points, name this word.

KERN

Its name is similar to its North American analogue but it is different because the largely Muslim population of Turkey prefers not to have it carry the name of a Christian symbol. For 10 points, name this Mideast health organization, whose function is the same as the Red Cross.

RED CRESCENT

Name the year when Georges Pompidou was elected president of France, Senator Edward Kennedy had his Chappaquiddick Incident, James Earl Ray was sentenced to 99 years in prison (the year after his target died) and, for 10 points, Niel Armstrong walked on the moon.

1969

Matthew was a British novelist and poet known for his horror-romance, “The Monk.” Clive is a British author better known by his initials who graduated from Oxford. He eventually wrote “The Screwtape Letters” and a more famous series of fantasy children’s books. And Sinclair wrote “It Can’t Happen Here,” “Main Street,” and “Babbitt.” For 10 points, give the shared last name.

LEWIS

There are many different kinds of them, including wraparound, shared-appreciation, pledged-account, graduated payment, adjustable rate, and fixed-rate. For 10 points, name this financial agreement often used to pay for a house.

MORTGAGE

Letterman’s list of his top 10 excuses includes “went to hotel for free HBO” and “as mayor, has duty to greet foreign dignitiaries – you know, like from Columbia.” For 10 points, name this Washington, D.C. mayor who, in another excuse, “used drugs to escape daily nightmare of having first name ‘Marion’.”

Marion BARRY

It starts on the fifteenth day of the month of Tishri and runs for eight days, or seven in Israel. An autumal harvest festival, it commemorates the wandering of the Jews in the wilderness. For 15 points, name this Jewish holiday, the Feast of the Tabernacles.

SUKKOTH (“suckith” or anything close)

On November 15, 1864, one of his aides wrote that “A grand and awful spectacle is presented to the beholder in this beautiful city, now in flames. By order, the chief engineer has destroyed by powder and fire all the srotehouses, depot buildings and machine-shops. The heaven is one expanse of lurid fire.” This was a descrption of his treatment of Atlanta at the beginning of his “march to the sea.” For 10 points, name this Union general.

William T. SHERMAN (prompt on “Atlanta”)

He was a former employee of Thomas Edison and became famous in the same field. He is famous for inventing a transformer that is used in electromagnetic radio communication; this is now known as his namesake “coil.” For 10 points, name this Russian who dreamed of “wireless energy.”

Nikola TESLA

Affecting one in 200 Americans, it is a brain disorder caused when many brain cells send impulses at the same time, on a much larger scale than is normal. The afflicted individual then jerks and convulses voilently. For 10 points, name this disorder often triggered by flickering light.

EPILEPSY

They were caused by glaciers moving southward. On their way, they carved deep canyons into the ground. When the ice finally melted at the end of the Ice Age, the ocean level rose and these filled with seawater. Now one can see high-cliffed canyons overlooking narrow bays, especially in Norway. For 15 points, name these geological phenomena.

FJORDs

In September 1941, he said that “the leaders of both the British and Jewish races, for reasons which are understandable from their standpoint as they are indivisible from ours, for reasons which are not American, wish to involve us in the war.” This speech came fourteen years after his most famous feat, which took him 33 hours and landed him on the cover of Time magazine as Man of the Year in 1927. For 15 points, name this aviator.

Charles LINDBERGH

This theorem is dependent on a lack of friction and is based on the nonexistence of perpetual motion, and it states that between two heat reservoirs of different temperatures, no engine is more efficient than one of his namesake engines. For 15 points, name this theorem put forth by a French physicist.

CARNOT’s theorem

A bull, a skull, and many anguished faces are among the hodgepodge of images that, one would assume, take place in a Spanish city right after a bombing. Painted in 1837, it was painted after the Germans bombed a city of unarmed civilians in the Spanish Civil War. For 15 points, name this Pablo Picasso work which shares its name with the city.

GUERNICA

He was a well-educated man who supported the arts. His forces which helped him win the battle of Hattin in 1187 were called the Saracens by his Christian opponents. That battle secured Jerusalem, which he successfully defended against King Richard I twelve years later. For 15 points, name this Muslim leader.

SALADIN

It was first suggested in 1927 by a Belgian priest named Georges Lemaitre and was shown likely to be correct through the dicovery, at New Jersey’s Bell laboratories, of background cosmic radiation. Though Lemaitre’s idea was not completely consistent with the currently accepted theory, it was largely correct, though not accepted until Hubble made advancements into determining the expanding nature of the universe. For 15 points, name this theory, which centers around an initial, heavy, compressed atom.

BIG BANG

Her husband had only seen a portrait of her by Hans Holbein before he married her, but evidently it was a but too flattering, because he found her so unattractive that he had his marriage to her annulled and the matchmaker killed 9 days later. The matchmaker was Chancellor Thomas Cromwell, the wedding day had been January 6, 1540, and the husband had been Henry the Eighth. For 15 points, name this German princess, Henry’s fourth wife.

ANNE of CLEVES

It is equivalent to the “axiom of choice” and to Zorn’s lemma. For the positive integers, it is equivalent to the principle of induction. It says that every set A, for every order relation, has a smallest element. For 15 points, name this mathematical principle sometimes abbreviated WOP.

WELL-ORDERING principle (accept anything involving forms of the words “well” and “order”)

The first carries a bow and rides on a white horse. The second carries a great sword and rides on a red horse. The third rides on a black horse and carries scales. The fourth rides on a pale horse, carries a sword, and happens to be named Death. For 15 points, name this Revelationary quartet.

The FOUR HORSEMEN OF THE APOLALYPSE

He rejected common social conventions and defied normal comforts, so much that he was said to have lived in a tub. According to legend, he carried a lantern around the streets of Athens in his search for an honest man. For 15 points, name this founder of the school of cynicism.

DIOGENES

250 miles long and approximately 64 miles wide, it receives around 250 inches of rainfall annually. Though it was actually named for an Indian tribe, the rain makes it an ideal breeding ground for its namesake pests. For 15 points, name this Central American coast.

MOSQUITO COAST

Its name was chosen at random; the word happened to be the French for “hobby horse.” It was organized in France by the poet Tristan Tzara and in America by such artistic characters as Marcel Duchamp. Though it died by 1922, it laid the foundation for surrealism. For 15 points, name this movement which attempted to reject classical taste and undermine art itself.

DADAism

A staunch Yankees fan, he was born in New York City in 1941. He holds a degree in geology from Antioch College and a Ph.D. in paleontology from Columbia University, both fields contributing greatly to his status as a premier scientist and Professor of Geology and Zoology. He is famous for his co-formulation of the theory of punctuated equilibrium in evolution and for his critiques of other scientific theories. For 15 points, name this Harvard biologist.

Stephen Jay GOULD

“Zlateh the Goat and Other Stories,” “The Wheel on the School,” “Dear Mili,” “Outside Over There,” “The Night Kitchen” and “Lullabies and Night Songs” are some of the works of this author who won the Caldecott Medal in 1964. For 10 points, name this author who won for illustrations in his “Where the Wild Things Are.”

Maurice SENDAK

He overturns a bowl, puts it on his head, and calls it a helmet before going off to fight giants who unfortunately happen to be windmills. For 10 points, name this Cervantes hero whose name is used in an adjective today describing overly romanticized and unrealistic effort.

Don QUIXOTE (“key-HO-tay”)

Christian Friedrich Schonbein discovered it in 1840, and it was first detected due to its sharp odor, not for its pale blue color in its pure form. It can be produced by electric sparking in motors, during lightning strikes, and, in general, naturally through photochemcal and electric-discharge reactions and commercially in an ionizer. For 10 points, name this gas with molecular weight 47.998 and which consists entirely of the eighth element.

OZONE

One famous comment of his was recently parodied by Mark McGrath and the rest of Sugar Ray in the title of their new album, 14:59. For 10 points, name the artist that said that we would have 15 minutes of fame and who famously painted soup cans.

Andy WARHOL

Name the year. Congress votes the Philippines their independence. Frances Perkins becomes the first female cabinet member. The 20th amendment is passed. The Reichstag burns down. Japan withdraws from the league of nations. And Hitler is appointed chancellor. For 10 points, name the year in which all this happened.

1933

It was meant to encourage creativity, give students a deeper understanding of general principles, to modernize the courses, and to make the subject more interesting. It fell out of favor when test scores declined in the 1970’s and was thus never fully implemented. New topics included basic set theory and non-10 bases. For 10 points, name this failed educational trend.

NEW MATHematics

“The Burial of the Dead,” “A Game of Chess,” “The Fire Sermon,” “Death by Water,” and “What the Thunder Said” are the titles to the five parts of this poem. For 10 points, name this poem dedicated to Ezra Pound in the early 1900’s by T.S. Eliot.

The WASTE LAND

Communist philosophy, complete celibacy, and nonviolence are among the basic tenets of this religious group founded in the early 1770’s. At their height, they claimed approximately 6,000 members, but there are few remaining, with those that do living in small New England communities. For 10 points, name this sect founded by Mother Ann Lee.

SHAKERs

He discovered that viscosity of a gas is independent of viscosity, and with Boltzmann, he derived a law for the distribution of energies of gas molecules at thermal equilibrium. These both bear his name. His “demon” is a ficticious creature used to illustrate the second law of thermodynamics. For 10 points, name this man who also formulated 4 field equations.

James Clerk MAXWELL

Stanislaus Leszczynski received the Lorraine duchies at the end of this war, whose end also saw France’s recognition of Augustus III, the Austrian candidate for the throne. France had been supported by Spain, who ended up regaining the Two Sicilies, and Sardinia, and they had fought against Austria who was supported by Russia. For 15 points, name this war of the 1730’s.

The WAR OF THE POLISH SUCCESSION

Two were former Confederates, as that was the name of their old band. One was a former member of the Detours. One of the first songs that Pete wrote and that most of the members recorded together, “It Was You,” was never released because it sounded too much like the Beatles. They hit it big, however, and found a longtime drummer in Keith Moon, who performed with John Entwistle, Roger Daltry, and Pete Townshend until 1978. For 15 points, name this band whose only top-10 hit was “I Can See For Miles.”

THE WHO

It got its name because Erasmus was the patron saint of Mediterranean sailors. Seen everywhere from the horns of cattle to propellors and wings of airplanes, it requires near-complete darkness to be visible. It occurs when electricity discharges from objects, such as the mast of a ship, often during a thunderstorm. For 10 points, name this glowing effect.

SAINT ELMO’S FIRE

He developed schiacciato, a technique in which shallow relief achieved depth. He also worked on a Florentine cathedral while an assistant to Ghiberti. He headed a large workshop in Padua, though many of his masterworks, such as the Magdalen and the pulpits of San Lorenzo, are Florentine in origin. For 15 points, name this man wro eventually gravitated to humanistic expression as in his St. Mark, having formerly used Gothic forms as in his marble David.

DONATELLO

This 6-letter word fills in the blank in the following stanza: “I see the eigenvalue in thine eye, / I hear the tender BLANK in thy sigh. / Bernoulli would have been content to die, / Had he but known such a^2 cos 2 phi!” This comes from a poem dedicated to the algebra of these. They are defined as magnitudes by which components of systems can be transformed linearly. For 15 points, name these quantities, which have vectors as special cases.

TENSORS

It got its name from a Scandinavian bank robbery after the captives were released at the conclusion of what became a 5-day hostage situation. In general, it refers to any situation in which hostages, after being released, show unlikely connection to and sympathy toward those who had kept them captive. For 15 points, name this psychological condition.

STOCKHOLM SYNDROME

Cy Young (no, not the baseball player), Miklos Nemeth, Tess Sanderson, Matti Jarvinen, and Babe Didrickson have been particularly skilled users of it. The men’s official one weighs 800 grams and is between 2.6 and 2.7 meters long. It must be released above the shoulder on the run, and it must break the turf upon landing. For 15 points, name this field event.

JAVELIN

90,000 people started it, but only half finished. Jaingzi to Guizhou to Shaannxi was the general route they took while being forced to cross rivers and evade Nationalist troops. For 15 points, name this Mao Tse-Tung-led exodus.

LONG MARCH

With Armand Fizeau, he took the first clear picture of the sun. He found the velocity of light in air and determined that its speed decreased as the index of refraction of the medium did. Though he invented the gyroscope, it is for another device that Umberto Eco wrote a namesake work and for which he is best known. For 15 points, name this man who demonstrated the Earth’s rotation with a pendulum.

Jean Bernard Leon FOUCAULT

It was probably commissioned by Odo, a bishop. During the French Revolution, it was used to cover a wagon full of ammunition when a lawyer pulled it out. After it got out of the lawyer’s attic, it went to its namesake city, where it has stayed ever since, except when the Nazis examined it. It tells the story of Harold Godwinson, who was “rescued” by William of Normandy. For 15 points, name this long tapestry.

The BAYEUX TAPESTRY

The Canterbury Plain is its largest flat area for grain-growing. The Otago Plateaus and Basins are sites of livestock farming. The Chatham Islands and Stewart Island are home to over 1000 of the approximately 3,500,000 inhabitants of this country. For 15 points, name this nation, once part of the British empire, in which everybody is within 80 miles of the coast and 12% of the residents are Maori.

NEW ZEALAND

He never completed his studies as an engineer, and worked in his father’s mining company before becoming a salesman for an Austrian construction company and a travelling salesman for the Vacuum Oil Company. He found himself unemployed and at his friend Ernst Kaltenbrunner’s advice he got 14 months’ military training before finding a job under Heinrich Himmler in the Security Service. For 15 points, name this name who became the “Jewish Specialist” of the Reich Main Security Office and the main implementer of the “final solution.”

Adolf EICHMANN

The last name’s the same (except for perhaps one silent letter). James, a British poet, known for “The Seasons.” Elihu, an American electrical engineer. George Paget, a British physicist. John Taliaferro, an American general after whom a submachine gun is named. And Joseph, another British physicist, but one who discovered the electron. For 15 points, give the common last name.

THOM(p)SON

L.L. Zamenhof started work on it when he was a junior in high school. Its name means “a person who is hoping.” Its proponents are probably still hoping for it to catch on in North America, Africa, and the Muslim world, where it is still umpopular, though it is estimated that about two million people worldwide could honestly wear the green star, and the Tsarist government of Russia found it dangerous enough that it banned magazines and books in this language around 1900. For 15 points, name this artificial language.

ESPERANTO

Dave Barry wrote that every morning “he used to wake up at the crack of dawn, develop some brilliant plan to save the economy, then head out for his morning jog. His aides would find him stubling around hours later… [he] might have stood a chance in the 1980 elections if he had run against another jogger, but instead he faced Ronald Reagan.” Who was this President?

James (Jimmy) CARTER

He was often considered the richest man in Rome, and was rebuffed by the Senate when he couldn’t get friendly legislation passed. For 10 ponts name ths man who hated Pompey so much that the Frst Trumverate collapsed.

Marcus Lcnus CRASSUS

Published posthumously in 1849, it is a classic tour de force, as the title objects are mentioned often seven times in a row, as they are used to represent childhood, youth, maturity, and death in the poem’s four stanzas. For 10 points, name these Edgar Allen Poe objects that are said to be “tintinambulating.”

The BELLS

It must be picturable as a black box whose actions are completely dictated by a action table. Special cases include “busy beavers,” examples which run for a maximum number of steps for a certain number of states. They are significant because they can perform any computation able to be performed by a digital computer. For 15 points, name this kind of hypothetical machine useful in computer programming.

TURING machine

Abd-ar-Rahman crossed the Pyrenees with 80,000 men. These Muslim forces were met by the grandfather of Charlemagne, Charles, a chief of the Franks. The Christians were victorious, and the spread of Islam into western Europe was checked. For 15 points, name this 732 battle.

TOURS

Arthur Ashe wrote in his biography that he regretted taking such large amounts of it. It blocks the functioning of the reverse transcriptase enzyme; as such, some have considered it a hope for AIDS patients. For 15 points, name this controversial drug.

AZT (AZIDOTHYMIDINE)

This is a city of many geographically distinguishing marks. In celebration of its country’s 100th anniversary of independence, Corcovado Mountain is now graced with a 100-foot tall statue of Jesus Christ called “Christ the Redeemer.” Also notable is Sugarloaf Mountain. For 15 points, name this South American city.

RIO DE JANIERO, Brazil

A book containing their scripts is dedicated to “Ian McNaughton, who somehow understood it all, and everyone else who joined the Circus, especially Carol Cleveland.” Actors included Michael Palin, Terry Jones, Eric Idle, Terry Gilliam, and, for 15 points, John Cleese and Graham Chapman. Name this comedy series.

MONTY PYTHON’s Flying Circus

The basic theory that makes it effective is that it exploits the noncompressibility of liquids to allow for the multiplying of forces and creation of a large mechanical advantage. A common type pushes liquid from a cylinder of small diameter into one of larger diameter, pushing a piston, which raises an object like an automobile. For 15 points, name this kind of lift.

HYDRAULIC lift

He is wrongly accused of trying to kill a Roman official. He is sent to be a slave. He wins his freedom, and his mother and sister are freed from prison and cured of their leprosy, but not before he wins a chariot race. For 15 points, name the title character of this literary classic that was made into a famous movie.

BEN-HUR

“Stone walls do not a prison make, / Nor iron bars a cage; / Minds innocent and quiet take / That for a hermitage.” This man wrote these lines in his famous “To Althea from Prison.” For 15 points, name this cavalier poet.

Richard LOVELACE

Give the year in which all the following occurred. The Treaty of Rapallo was signed, the Red Army captures Odessa, The Hague becomes the seat of the International Court of Justice, Alexandre Millerand is elected French Premier, King Feisal becomes king of independent Syria, the League of Nations comes into being, the 19th amendment is passed, and, for 15 points, Warren Harding becomes the 29th US President.

1920

They are not as dustructive as their name would suggest, though winds associated with them can reach up to 60 miles per hour and they can do damage. They are caused by the rising of warm air on dry, clear days. For 15 points, name these colums of brown air filled with dust.

DUST DEVILS

For a human, it’s about 175 kilometers per hour, depending on the person’s weight and shape. It occurs when the upward force of air resistance and the downward force of gravity become equal on a falling body. For 15 points, name this term for the maximum speed attainable by a falling object.

TERMINAL VELOCITY

Don’t multiply entities more than is necessary. Don’t make explanations too complicated. If two explanations explain something equally well, use the one that is simpler. Such would be the advice of someone who is using, for 10 points, whose razor?

OCKHAM’s razor

He was a heavyweight boxing champion of his country from 1951 to 1960, after a stint in its army and before his appointment as deputy commander of the armed forces. Before the neighboring Tanzanians ended his rulership, he called for the extinction of Israel and expelled approximately 50,000 Asians from the country. For 10 points, name this man who had grown up tanding goats and sheep in Uganda.

Idi AMIN

He made a fortune in the business world, and retired at 41 to set off in search of sites from Homer’s poems. He then discovered Tyrens, Myceneae, and Ithaca. For 15 points, name this German archaeologist who, in 1871, started unearthing ruins at Hessarlik, which is commonly accepted as the site of ancient Troy.

Heinrich SCHLIEMANN

Sir Francis Galton pioneered scientific research into them in the 1880’s, though classification systems were still about a decade away. Accidental patterns can include each of the other three types, namely loops, which are the most common, arches, which rise to a peak, and whorls, which are circular. For 10 points, name these unique digital markings.

FINGERPRINTS

Later in his life he worked on the General Advisory Committee of the US Atomic Energy Commission; this was after he discovered Neptunium and later won the 1938 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work in radioactivity. Also known for his work in the theory of beta decay and that of the neutrino, he is more often remembered for his creation of the first self-sustaining uranium chain reaction. For 15 points, name this phycisist.

Enrico FERMI

Born in Pittsburgh in 1846, she excelled with pastels and in etching. Many of her well-known paintings are united by the theme of motherhood, as she painted many versions of Mother and Child. For 10 points, name this Impressionist who lived in France for much of her life.

Mary CASSATT

“Some people couldn’t take it and they died right in the car; we had to just put them in a corner. Then we came to a place, someone called out ‘Oswiecim!’” The passengers from the preceding passage had just arrived here, as told by number 104995. He also describes the slave labor manufacturing artificial rubber in, for 15 points, what death camp?

AUSCHWITZ

He has a losing record even though he’s in the Baseball Hall of Fame, and he did get to the Hall for his pitching skill, not just his advice on life that included the wise “Don’t look back; someone may be gaining on you.” For 15 points, name this pitcher whose record was much better in the Negro Leagues, where he spent most of his career.

Satchel PAIGE

A former geography teacher, though she isn’t known as a poet often, some are familiar with “Anyway,” in which she instructs that “People are unreasonable, illogical, and self-centered; Love them anyway.” This appeared on a wall in a children’s home called Shishu Bhavan in Calcutta, India. For 15 points, name this woman whose “Meditations from a Simple Path” are not as famous as her Nobel Peace Prize and her Missionaries of Charity.

MOTHER THERESA

He got started on his path to the top as an executive with ABC, where he worked with the miniseries “Roots.” He managed to work his way to the top, however, and has led his company’s expansion, overseeing such actions as the purchase of ESPN. For 15 points, name this CEO who has also seen the construction of the Animal Kingdom as the head of Disney.

Michael EISNER

It was said that he knew so little about the topic that he would ride to fame that he would have a hardtime distinguishing Groucho from Karl Marx. His fake list contained, at different times, 4, 81, 205 and 57 supposed Communists. For 15 points, name this Wisconsin senator.

Joseph McCARTHY

Liquid ones use a tube filled with dye. Semiconductor ones use electric current between two layers of metal. Gas ones use electrically-excited gas in a tube. Crystal ones are also popular, such as the ruby one. All of the previously-mentioned substances are used to amplify waves of light. For 15 points, name this kind of device.

LASER

First used in 1854, it was turned into a federal prison in 1934, and closed down due to the expense involved in running it in 1963. Now it is a part of the Golden Gate Recreation Park, and you can tour it, if you’re willing to cross the mile of water that separates it from mainland San Francisco. For 15 points, name this place that is also known as “The Rock”.

ALCATRAZ (prompt on “The Rock” if early)

After he got his PhD from Columbia, he taught at the University of Chicago. He rejected the theories of John Maynard Keynes and proposed a negative income tax in his book “Capitalism and Freedom.” He would eventually win the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1976. For 15 points, name this man who popularized the saying that “there’s no such thing as a free lunch.”

Milton FRIEDMAN

Written by a member of the 165th Infantry, the title objects are described with “hungry mouths prest against the earth,” and they are described as looking “at God all day.” For 15 points, what are these things, which, though fools like Joyce Kilmer write poems, can “only be made by God”?

TREES

On an electroencephalograph, one can recognize this period when the waves become shorter and faster. When conditions are satisfactory, most adults go through it approximately twice every three hours, each period lasting from five to 30 minutes, during which neurons stimulate the cerebral cortex, and nerve impulses are unable to reach the body. For 10 points, name this stage of sleep in which dreaming occurs.

REM (Rapid Eye Movement)

350 miles long and anywhere from two to 20 miles wide, it and Cape Horn were more commonly used before the Panama canal opened. It experiences rough winds and rain year-long, though in 1520 a European made it through and gave his name to these straits. For 15 points, name these straits which separate Tierra del Fuego from the South American mainland.

STRAITS of MAGELLAN

Its last line is “A way a lone a last a loved a long the.” Its first line, which begins “riverrun, past Eve and Adam’s, from swerve to shore to bend of bay,” completes the sentence. Such is the manner in which this novel was written; its first page also includes a pseudo-word that is over 80 letters long, and the rest of the text is also riddled with nonsense words. For 15 points, name this James Joyce tome.

FINNEGANS WAKE

It is obtained from lichens, and has always been useful for its color; it used to be used as a dye and as a coloring agent for beverages, and it still used as a stain used with microscopes. More common, however, is its uses either added to solution or on absorbent paper, where it is used to determine the relative amounts of hydronium or hydroxide ions. For 15 points, name this indicator that changes from red to blue if taken from an acid and put into a base.

LITMUS

Give the 6-word phrase that is supposed to come in front of all the following completions: Your toilet paper has page numbers on it. You use a fishing license as a form of I.D. You take a fishing pole into Sea World. Your best shoes have numbers on the heels. And, for 15 points, you own a home that is mobile and 5 cars that aren’t.

YOU MIGHT BE A REDNECK IF

“But the slow street tango had begun. Somewhere it played; he could hear it, an old accordion. It was far back, or far ahead, he couldn’t be sure. Yet he moved towardd him steadily. And the sound of it blurred his criteria and funneled his own alternatives toward unity. Inexorably it did that, until there was nowhere left to go, except toward Francesca Johnson.” Thus goes one passage of this book that stayed on the best-seller list for 162 weeks. For 15 points, name this Robert James Waller hit that featured Robert Kinkaid.

The BRIDGES OF MADISON COUNTY